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VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2018 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Changing Trends in the Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer in Upper Middle Class Women

Vijaya Srinivasan, Sadasiva P Meenakshi, Koramadai S Mouleeswaran, Gopalakrishnan V Praveen, Tom Michael

Keywords : Cervical cancer, Postmenopausal bleeding, Postparity, Socioeconomic status

Citation Information : Srinivasan V, Meenakshi SP, Mouleeswaran KS, Praveen GV, Michael T. Changing Trends in the Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer in Upper Middle Class Women. J South Asian Feder Menopause Soc 2018; 6 (2):97-102.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10032-1148

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: Changing trends in the epidemiology of cervical cancer are reported from developing countries, but the new factors are not well documented, especially socioeconomic (SE) status. Aim: To study the prevalence and factors associated with cervical cancer in upper middle SE class women from a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, South India. Materials and methods: This is a case–control study of cases with cervical cancer and twice the number of asymptomatic controls, among women who underwent papanicolaou (PAP) smear test during 2009 to 2015. Results: Of the 3,536 PAP smears examined, 48 (1.36%) had cervical cancer and 96 age- and year-matched controls were selected for the cases. The mean (± standard deviation, SD) age of cases was 51.3 (± 12.7) years and controls was 51.7 (± 12.7) years (p not significant, NS). Over 90% of both groups underwent surgical sterilization and had long married lives. The median parity of cases and controls was 2. Parity was 3 or more in 22 (44.9%), compared with 27 (28.1%) in controls (p < 0.05; relative risk, RR: 1.6 and 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.3–1.9). Among all the cases, 23 (48.0%) were asymptomatic. More than half, 28 (58.3%), of the cases and 50 (52.1%) of the controls had attained menopause (p = NS). About 7 (25%) of these cases reported postmenopausal bleeding (PNB). Conclusion: Among the PAP smears tested, high prevalence (1.36%) of cervical cancer was noted. The associated factors were age >50 years, median parity of 2, history of PNB, and a long duration of sexual exposure. Nearly half the cases were asymptomatic, highlighting the need for routine screening of all postmenopausal women.


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