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2015 | July-December | Volume 3 | Issue 2

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Mindfulness and the Aging Brain

[Year:2015] [Month:July-December] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/jsafoms-3-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



B Rumianowski, I Rotter, A Brodowska, G Adler, J Kowalski, B Karakiewicz, M Laszczyñska

Influence of Selected Reproductive Factors and Smoking on Age at Menopause

[Year:2015] [Month:July-December] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:64 - 66]

   DOI: 10.5005/jsafoms-3-2-64  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Early menopause may be associated with serious health risks resulting from, e.g. decreased estrogen levels. This may occur despite hormone replacement therapy.


The aim of this study was the determination of the effect of selected reproductive factors and smoking on age at the onset of menopause in women from Szczecin and surrounding areas.

Materials and methods

Three hundred and five women after natural menopause were asked to complete a questionnaire, and blood samples were collected from them to test for the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) andoestradiol (E2).


Smoking women experienced menopause on average more than a year earlier than non-smokers, but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant effect of age at menarche or first birth on age at the last menstrual period.


Age at menarche and first birth were not related to age at menopause. In smoking women, menopause occurred earlier but the difference was not statistically significant.


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